Software glitches are increasingly bedeviling automakers, according to a new J.D. Power gauge that concludes luxury auto companies Tesla Motors and Jaguar Land Rover are among the manufacturers with the highest rate of defects.

Consumer complaints about vehicle software problems filed with the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration jumped 22% in 2015, compared to a year earlier, according to the new J.D. Power Safety IQ study, which analyzes NHTSA records and J.D. Power data together.

As the industry’s reliance on software algorithms explodes, the number of recalls is rising, too. It reflects the fact that the car has become a computer on wheels — but computers are prone to glitches.

The brands with the highest rate of software complaints per 1,000 vehicles from 2011-16 were Daimler’s Smart, discontinued Japanese brand Isuzu, California automaker Tesla, Chinese-owned Volvo, and sister luxury brands Jaguar and Land Rover.

The brands with the lowest rate of software complaints were General Motors’ Chevrolet and GMC, Fiat Chrysler’s Ram, Toyota, Mazda and Subaru.

“Consumer complaints are the canaries in the coalmine for automobile manufacturers when it comes to anticipating future recalls and longer-term customer satisfaction,” said Renee Stephens, vice president of U.S. automotive at J.D. Power, in a statement. “Software-related problems have become much more prevalent and, if not addressed, could begin to erode consumer trust in new automotive technology.”

Recalls blamed on software problems rose 45% from 2014 to 2015. Automakers have issued 189 software recalls in the past five years, including 141 that could trigger a crash through defects in critical components such as powertrain and vehicle controls.

The number of software-related technical service bulletins issued by manufacturers to dealers — an internal communication regarding potential problems that doesn’t require recalls — also jumped from 58 annually in 2006-10 to 160 annually in 2011-15, according to J.D. Power.

One potential solution is over-the-air software upgrades, which Tesla has used to deploy rapid changes to its luxury electric vehicles.

Software upgrades are not a panacea, however. For example, 55% of vehicle owners who experienced a navigation system problem reported that a software upgrade did not fix the issue, according to J.D. Power’s 2016 Vehicle Dependability Study.

Follow USA TODAY reporter Nathan Bomey on Twitter @NathanBomey.