TOKYO—In results that underscore a global car-industry trend, Toyota Motor Corp. said its earnings were bolstered by growth in regions like the U.S. and Europe, while sales in once-hot emerging markets remained weak.

Toyota reported a modest rise in earnings for the quarter ended June, citing weak sales in Thailand, India, Indonesia and Brazil, but solid gains in North America and Europe lifted net profit 4.6%,to ¥587.7 billion…